Every car is a mechanical object that features an engine to operate it. A car’s internal combustion engine requires a mixture of air and fuel to function correctly. When an engine is running properly, it converts the compressed energy of fuel and air into a mechanical form which then drives the car’s axel and motor.
So what happens when your car’s engine stops receiving the optimal air/fuel ratio? It becomes inefficient. We are not talking about the patrol or diesel, because you always or should keep a check on that.
What we are emphasizing is the air that your car engine receives. Often, this inefficiency results due to the vacuum leaks caused by excessive usage and tear.
What causes a vacuum leak?
Let’s first get into the basics of an engine’s vacuum leak and how it occurs. Every internal combustion engine features vacuum fundamentals (hoses, gaskets, etc.) to provide dynamic air flow for the combustion process.
The engine maintains a vacuum value usually in inches of mercury to work correctly. If the vacuum value changes, the car would starve of the air required to operate combustion properly.
A vacuum leak results in unmetered air flow into the engine that upsets the ideal air/fuel ratio to operate properly. This, in the term, causes problems to your cars that are often observable.
Below let’s highlight some common indicators of a vacuum leak that will help you diagnose your engine effectively:
- Rough Idle RPM: If you experience a high or low idle RPM, it means there is a big vacuum leak. The throttle body captures faulty idle readings due to unmetered air flow.
- Rough acceleration: Due to inefficient combustion, your car will accelerate roughly or slow. The engine does not receive proper air/fuel ratio which indicates a vacuum leak
- Hissing sounds: If the engine sucks in a lot of air due to a vacuum leak, it will create a very loud hissing sound around the engine area.
- Check Engine Light: If the engine light is on, it means there is a fault. Check for vacuum leaks to confirm.
- Poor fuel economy: If your car has a poor fuel economy, it means the engine is working inefficiently and requires a vacuum leak check.
- Hard starting: This could mean that the engine does not receive proper air to ignite and start.
Wrongly diagnosing the vacuum leak
If you are unaware of the symptoms of a vacuum leak, it may trick you into replacing engine parts or sensors that are working perfectly. This deliberate attempt will cost you money in hopes of improving fuel economy, acceleration, and longevity of the engine. But you are only fooling your own-self.
As a rule of thumb, if you observe the following activities associated with your mechanical car, be sure to diagnose it for a vacuum leak first:
- Gives trouble starting
- Poor fuel economy
- Poor acceleration
- Gives variable idle RPM readings
- Check Engine Light is turned on upon inspection
- Misfires and Backfires
- Audible hissing sound from the engine
Finding Engine Vacuum Leaks!
Once you are assured that there is something wrong with your car’s engine, it’s time to become your car’s mechanic and get your hands dirty. Before jumping ahead, understand that you can detect most vacuum leaks by using the trivial methods, but advanced vacuum leaks require a special smoke machine to diagnose.
Before starting vacuum leak detection, study your engines vacuum hose routing diagram. Divide the inspection into a two-stage process:
- Visual Inspection: Visually inspecting your car engine’s hoses for loose connections and damage. Unplug both ends of the hose and feel for damaged, softened, splintered hose. Replace them if you suspect any malfunctioning, loose ends or leaks.
- Intake Manifold Inspection: Alongside vacuum hose leaks, intake manifold gasket leaks also occur. You can use soapy water in a spray bottle and sprinkle it around the intake. If you see bubbles pouring out, it indicates a leak
Using smoke to find vacuum leaks
If you’ve got your hands on a smoke generating machine, you’ve made vacuum leaks detection much simpler. This method also detects leaks that are damaged internally and not visible. The smoke machine uses an electrical switch and atmospheric air to generate smoke.
Some professional machines regulate the smoke’s pressure such that the car engine’s interior remains intact, but smoke emits out of leaky joints. However, these professional machines are expensive but fulfill their purpose.
If you’d like to diagnose your car engine using a simple smoke method, then use the following five-step guideline:
- Plug all ports into the intake manifold. Consult your engines vacuum hose diagram if required
- Connect smoke machines nozzle to the manifold. Make sure the connection is tight
- Seal the inlet with circular rubber duct
- Turn on the smoke machine for a couple of minutes and let the smoke settle within the engine
- Use a flashlight and observe hoses, gaskets, intake manifold for smoke emission. Mark leaky areas with a chalk
Providing all this information can help you reduce the repair costs of your car engine. Most vacuum leaks occur on the hoses and gaskets due to wear and tear over an extensive period of usage. These mechanical parts are cheap, easily available, and can be replaced. But the ultimate or complete solution to this problem can only be completed with the time-consuming investigation.
This is important because some components operating under vacuum can be internally damaged. However, this phenomenon is rare but can cause hefty damage to your car’s health, fuel economy, and overall lifespan.
People often end up overlooking the right places for vacuum leaks, and their lack of consideration eventually leads to a myriad of time wastage looking for problems elsewhere. An engine vacuum leak can be fixed by any person with the right knowledge of symptoms which we already mentioned earlier.
If you experience any symptoms of a vacuum leak in your car’s drive, it’s better to tackle the problem as soon as possible. Taking professional help or using a smoke machine to identify and fix all vacuum leaks could mean better performance and efficient fuel economy daily.